Benzene and its derivatives
A. Analytical, synthetic and other evidences in the derivation of structure of benzene, Orbital picture, resonance in benzene, aromatic characters, Huckel’s rule
B. Reactions of benzene - nitration, sulphonation, halogenationreactivity, Friedelcrafts alkylation- reactivity, limitations, Friedelcrafts acylation.
C. Substituents, effect of substituents on reactivity and orientation of mono substituted benzene compounds towards electrophilic substitution reaction
D. Structure and uses of DDT, Saccharin, BHC and Chloramine
Phenol* - Acidity of phenols, effect of substituents on acidity, qualitative tests, Structure and uses of phenol, cresols, resorcinol, naphthols
Aromatic Amines* - Basicity of amines, effect of substituents on basicity, and synthetic uses of aryl diazonium salts
Aromatic Acids* - Acidity, effect of substituents on acidity and important reactions of benzoic acid.
Fats and Oils
a. Fatty acids – reactions.
b. Hydrolysis, Hydrogenation, Saponification and Rancidity of oils, Drying oils.
c. Analytical constants – Acid value, Saponification value, Ester value, Iodine value, Acetyl value, Reichert Meissl (RM) value – significance and principle involved in their determination.
a. Synthesis, reactions
b. Structure and medicinal uses of Naphthalene, Phenanthrene, Anthracene, Diphenylmethane, Triphenylmethane and their derivatives
Stabilities – Baeyer’s strain theory, limitation of Baeyer’s strain theory, Coulson and Moffitt’s modification, Sachse Mohr’s theory (Theory of strainless rings), reactions of cyclopropane and cyclobutane only